Here are the steps to follow to publish a Debian package, so that it becomes part of the official Debian repositories.
Here comes the second part of our Debian packaging story !
This is a follow-up of the post First Debian package.
Alright, let’s assume that you have a Debian package in your hands. It’s nice and all, and now you wish to make it available to the world. That is, you wish that your package make it to the official Debian repositories. Here are the steps to do that.
Of course, I assume that you’re not a DD (Debian Developer), otherwise you wouldn’t be reading that. No no no, you’re just a random guy like me. How can you get your package to be accepted by the Debian team ?
Well, basically, you will have to find a Debian Developer who is willing to help you. He will review your package, tell you what needs to be fixed, and in the end accept your package. This guy is called a mentor, and what you’ll be doing is a request for sponsorship.
For this example, we use the PNMixer package, version 0.6.1.
There’s one MUST HAVE tool in this story:
apt-get install reportbug
There’s a bit of configuration the first time you run it, don’t be scared :)
You will also need
debsign to sign the package:
apt-get install devscripts
And at last, the package upload tool:
apt-get install dput
There is plenty of documentation available on the Net already.
Our main source of information here is Debian Mentors pages.
Please ensure you read that all.
There is also the Debian Mentors FAQ, in the Debian Wiki.
The best “in a nutshell” guide is provided in the last link.
The 6 steps described here sum it all up.
Get to know the tools
First of all, Debian maintains a list of “work in progress” packages, called the WNPP (Work-Needing and Prospective Packages). Your package will make it to this list at first.
To get started, please visit: https://www.debian.org/devel/wnpp/.
Second, you will have to deal with the Debian BTS (Bug Tracking System). You will basically send mails to this robot in order to add your package to the WNPP list, and change the status of your package if needed.
The Debian BTS starting point: https://bugs.debian.org/. From there, there are two pages that will teach you how to communicate with the server:
There’s one thing to understand here:
wnpp is a pseudo-package.
And like every package, you file bug reports against it. And this is exactly
how it works: when you want to add your pacakge to this list, you file a
bug report. When you want to remove it, or change the status, you file a
bug report. But these bug reports have special format and keywords, so
that they can be parsed and handled by the Debian BTS.
To ensure that you don’t mess up with the content of these bug reports,
reportbug to create your bug reports. This tool takes care
of the formatting, and in the end you just have to fill it a formatted
mail. Pretty cool, I tell you.
Deal with the WNPP
OK, so before everything else, the first thing to do is to inform the Debian
community that you’re working on a package. You do that by filing a bug against
wnpp pseudo-package on the Debian BTS.
Have a look at the WNPP list by visiting this page: https://bugs.debian.org/wnpp
Be patient, the page is a bit long to load. There are a lot of packages there.
When the page is ready, do a quick search to see if the software you’re packaging is mentioned in this list.
Retitle an RFP to ITP
When I packaged PNMixer 0.6, PNMixer was already mentioned in the list as an RFP (Request For Package). In such case, all you have is to do is to ask the BTS to retitle the package into an ITP (Intend To Package).
I did that simply by sending the following email to
retitle 745669 ITP: pnmixer -- Volume mixer for the system tray
File an ITP
Otherwise, if your package is not mentioned in the WNPP list,
and doesn’t already exist in Debian, then you have to
file an ITP bug report against the
The right tool to do that is
$ reportbug wnpp ... Choose the request type: 1 Please enter the proposed package name: pnmixer Checking status database... A package called pnmixer already appears to exist (at least on your system); continue? [y|N|q|?]? y Please briefly describe this package... : Simple mixer application for system tray Your report will be carbon-copied to debian-devel, per Debian policy. Querying Debian BTS for reports on wnpp (source)...
From then, just press Enter to discard the thousands of bug reports displayed.
Then, you’re taken to your usual console text editor, and it’s time to fill the blanks (version, upstream author and so on). In the end, my email would be something like that:
Subject: ITP: pnmixer -- Simple mixer application for system tray Package: wnpp Owner: "Your Name" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Severity: wishlist * Package name : pnmixer Version : 0.7 Upstream Author : Nick Lanham <https://github.com/nicklan> * URL : https://github.com/nicklan/pnmixer * License : GPL Programming Lang: C Description : Simple mixer application for system tray PNMixer is a simple mixer application designed to run in your system tray. It integrates nicely into desktop environments that don't have a panel that supports applets and therefore can't run a mixer applet. In particular it's been used quite a lot with fbpanel and tint2, but should run fine in any system tray. PNMixer is designed to work on systems that use ALSA for sound management. Any other sound driver like OSS or FFADO are currently not sup supported (patches welcome). There is no *official* PulseAudio support at the moment, but it seems that PNMixer behaves quite well anyway when PA is running. Feel free to try and to give some feedback.
Save and quit, then one last confirmation is required…
Report will be sent to "Debian Bug Tracking System" <email@example.com> Submit this report on wnpp (e to edit) [Y|n|a|c|e|i|l|m|p|q|d|t|s|?]? y Saving a backup of the report at /tmp/reportbug-wnpp-backup-20161001-5679-xi8Z2N Connecting to smtp.gmail.com via SMTP...
After a few minutes, you should receive a confirmation from the server. This is precious, because it containt the ITP bug number, and we need that in the next step.
Ensure your packages closes the ITP
In the case you submitted an ITP bug report, then you must ensure that your package closes this bug report. This is something you document in the Changelog.
So, back in your package, edit the file
debian/changelog. If it’s the first
version of the package you should have a line like that:
* Initial release. Closes: #nnnn.
#nnnn with the bug number of your ITP.
Otherwise, add such a line (replace
#nnnn of course):
* Closes: #nnnn (ITP).
Then rebuild your package.
dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc
Create a GPG key
If you don’t have a GPG key, it’s time to create one.
GPG puts its stuff in your home directory:
You can list keys:
And that’s enough for the moment…
Sign the package
Now, that you have a GPG key, signing the package is simple.
What’s important here is that the identity you used to make the package (ie your name and email) must be exactly the same as the one you used to create the GPG key. Otherwise you will get an error like that:
gpg: skipped "Your Name <firstname.lastname@example.org>": secret key not available
If you’re in this situation, you can recreate a new GPG key with the right name,
or you can also use the
-m option of
debsign to give another identity.
Upload to Debian Mentors
Create an account on https://mentors.debian.net (account type: maintainer).
Validate your email address. Login to your account. Add your GPG key. To have a public version of your GPG key, use the command suggested by the website. At the moment, it is:
gpg --export --export-options export-minimal --armor \ "Your Name <email@example.com>" \ > ~/.gnupg/yourname.pub
And now, you should upload your signed package to the website using
If you just installed
dput at the beginning of this tutorial, and never run it,
then there’s a bit of configuration to be done. You must create a configuration file.
Check http://mentors.debian.net/intro-maintainers for an up-to-date version of that.
echo ' [mentors] fqdn = mentors.debian.net incoming = /upload method = http allow_unsigned_uploads = 0 progress_indicator = 2 # Allow uploads for UNRELEASED packages allowed_distributions = .* ' > ~/.dput.cf
Then, a simple command will do:
$ dput mentors pnmixer_0.6.1-1_amd64.changes ... Uploading to mentors (via http to mentors.debian.net): Uploading pnmixer_0.6.1-1.dsc: done. Uploading pnmixer_0.6.1.orig.tar.gz: done. Uploading pnmixer_0.6.1-1.debian.tar.xz: done. Uploading pnmixer_0.6.1-1_amd64.deb: done. Uploading pnmixer_0.6.1-1_amd64.changes: done. Successfully uploaded packages.
You should receive a confirmation email after a few minutes.
Check your package on Debian Mentors
Just connect to your personal page on Debian Mentors: https://mentors.debian.net/packages/my.
Your package will show up after you receive a confirmation email for your upload. It takes a bit of time, so just be patient, relax and have a drink in the meantime.
This page will display everything that is right or wrong with your package.
If you’ve been serious and checked it properly with
you should have no bad surprise. Otherwise, you might discover that your
package is not as good as you thought…
Ask for a sponsorship
This is the last step :)
It happens on the Debian Mentor page. Have a look at the details for your package. For me, it happens here: https://mentors.debian.net/package/pnmixer (this page is probably unavailable at the moment you read these lines).
Among the several details, the one that matters to us is Needs a sponsor. Enable this, then have a look at the home page of Debian Mentors: https://mentors.debian.net/. Your package should show up here. Great, isn’t it ?
And now, the very very last step. You should explictly utter a call for sponsorship. The procedure is described on your package page in Debian Mentors. Just click the View RFS template link (RFS stands for Request For Sponsorship).
Everything is explained here. In a nutshell, it’s just filing a new bug report
You can see all the pending sponsorship-requests by visiting the page: https://bugs.debian.org/sponsorship-requests. It will provide you tons of examples of RFS mails.
To file the bug report, you can use the usual tool
Although at the moment of this writing, there’s no reportbug template
So it might be easier to just use your usual mail client, and copy/paste the template given by Debian Mentors.
I personally did that with
reportbug, so here comes the procedure.
$ reportbug sponsorship-requests ... A package named "sponsorship-requests" does not appear to be installed... n Getting available info for sponsorship-requests... Please enter the version of the package this report applies to (blank OK) > Will send report to Debian (per lsb_release). Querying Debian BTS for reports on sponsorship-requests (source)... ...
Just discard the bug reports found by hitting Enter. Then it starts to be interesting. From now on, you should use the template provided by the Debian Mentors, and mentioned above.
Briefly describe the problem (max. 100 characters allowed). > RFS: pnmixer/0.7-1 [ITP] -- Simple mixer application for system tray ... Please select a severity level: [normal] 6 ... Please select tags: (one at a time) [none]
Then it’s time to edit the mail with your favorite console text editor. This is when you basically copy/paste the template provided by Debian Mentors, and discard everything reportbug prepared for you :)
Save and quit, then one last confirmation is required…
Report will be sent to "Debian Bug Tracking System" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Submit this report on sponsorship-requests (e to edit) [Y|n|a|c|e|i|l|m|p|q|d|t|s|?]? y Saving a backup of the report at /tmp/reportbug-sponsorship-requests-backup-20161001-10960-bJE9KK Connecting to smtp.gmail.com via SMTP...
Now you just wait and see !
When your package has been accepted by Debian, there are several places that you can visit to have a look at your package. Here they are (for the PNMixer package of course).